To ensure the proper functioning of the association relations between Turkey and the European Community established in 1963 with the Ankara Agreement and to provide effective solutions to emerging problems the following institutions were formed:
To ensure the implementation and the progressive development of the association an Association Councilf consisting on one hand by members of the government of member states, members of the Council and the Commission and on the other hand by members of the Turkish Government was formed. Having the power to take decisions the Association Council can makes not only appropriate recommendations but also reviews periodically the functioning of the association..
According to Article 23 of the Ankara Agreement, the Association Council acts unanimously. The office of the President of the Association is held alternately for a term of six months by a representative of the Community and a representative of Turkey.
The Association Council may decide to set up committees to assist in the performance of its tasks and, in particular, a committee to ensure the continuing cooperation required for the proper functioning of the Ankara Agreement. Within this context the Association Committee (1964) and the Joint Parliamentary Commission (1965) were established.
According to Article 25 of the Ankara Agreement, The Parties can submit to the Association Council any dispute relating to the application or interpretation of the Agreement. The Association Council can settle the disputes on its own or can decide to submit the dispute to the European Court of Justice (ECJ).
The objective of the Association Committee established is to prepare the agenda of the Association Council and to prepare reports on issues of a technical nature. The Committee is comprised by technical experts from the Member States, the EU Council, the European Commission and Turkey. The reports prepared by the Committee are directly submitted to the Association Council without being put to vote.
In order to monitor the progress made on the harmonization and implementation of the legislations of the Accession Partnership and to assist the Association Committee, 8 subcommittees which do not have any decision-making power have been set up by Decision No: 3/2000 of the EC-Turkey Association Council.
The subcommittees working under the authority of the Association Committee, to which they shall report after each of their meetings, are:
In accordance with Article 27 of the Ankara Agreement, a Joint Parliamentary Commission which is comprised by 18 members from the European Parliament and 18 from the Turkish Parliament has been established by the Decision of 14th May 1965 of the European Parliament, the Decision of 22nd June 1965 of the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Decision No: 1/65 of the Turkey-EC Association Council.
JPC examines the annual activity reports prepared by the Association Council, exchanges views on the issues regarding the association relations and presents its recommendations to the Association Council.
The meetings of the JPC started to be held regularly only after the completion of the Customs Union. The political dimension of the Turkey-EU relations and the functioning of the Customs Union have been the main topics discussed during these meetings.
The Customs Cooperation Committee was established following the Decision No: 2/69 of Turkey-EC Association Council.
CCC has regularly convened since 1992, after 10 years break due to the military intervention in the 80s in Turkey. CCC mainly aims at monitoring the implementation of the provisions of the Ankara Agreement related to the custom issues. With this purpose, the CCC, which is comprised by the customs experts of Member States, Turkey and the European Commission meets twice a year to discuss solutions to the disputes arisen in the field of the custom procedures.
In addition to these institutions, pursuant to Article 52 of the Decision 1/95 of Turkey-EC Association Council, a Customs Union Joint Committee which is in charge of ensuring the exchange of views and information, the delivery of opinion and making recommendations to the Association Council, was established.
The main responsibilities of this Committee are to carry out exchange of views and information, to formulate recommendations to the Association Council and to deliver opinions with a view to ensuring the proper functioning of the Customs Union.
CUJC consists of representatives of the parties. The office of the Chairman of the CUJC is held alternately for a period of six months, by the representative of the Community, i.e. the European Commission, and the representative of Turkey. Article 53 paragraph 3 of the Decision concerned states that the Committee is to meet at least once a month. However, at present, the Parties generally meet in the CUJC twice a year. Within this context, the regular and effective working of the Committee is of vital importance in terms of proper functioning of the Customs Union. CUJC may also decide to establish any subcommittee or working party to assist it in carrying out its duties.
Joint Consultation Committee (JCC)
In accordance with Article 27 of the Ankara Agreement that envisages the promotion of the necessary cooperation and contacts between the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and other organs of the Community on the one hand and the Turkish Parliament and the corresponding organs in Turkey on the other, a Joint Consultation Committee has been established.
The Committee convenes 18 members of the Economic and Social Committee and the members representing different economic and interest groups from Turkey (such as TOBB, TÜRK-İŞ, DİSK, HAK-İŞ, TZOB, TESK, YÖK, TMMOB, TÜRKOPEN). JCC, which meets three times a year, aims at fortifying the cooperation and institutionalizing the socio-economic dialogue between the parties.